SAFFIR/SIMPSON HURRICANE SCALE RANGES

SCALE #         CENTRAL PRESSURE       WINDS      SURGE        DAMAGE
 (CAT.)            (MILLIBARS)         (MPH)      (FT.)   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
   1                  > 980           74 - 95     4 - 5        MINIMAL
   2               965 - 979          96 -110     6 - 8        MODERATE
   3               945 - 964         111 -130     9 -12        EXTENSIVE
   4               920 - 944         131 -155    13 -18        EXTREME
   5                  < 920            > 155      > 18         CATASTROPHIC



FROM THIS WE OBTAIN TWO GENERAL FORMULAS FOR CALCULATING WIND SPEED FROM THE
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE OF A HURRICANE. HOWEVER, THERE IS AN ACTUAL FORMULA
USING THE MORE ACCURATE CYCLOSTROPHIC BALANCE, BUT THESE GENERAL ONES CAN BE
USED MORE EASILY, BECAUSE THEY REQUIRE KNOWING ONLY THE MIN CENTRAL PRESS.

1.   WIND SPEED = 33 X {CUBE ROOT OF (1005-MIN. CENT. PRESS.)}
2.   WIND SPEED = 35 X {CUBE ROOT OF (1000-MIN. CENT. PRESS.)}
*AVERAGING THE TWO CAN GIVE A RELATIVELY ACCURATE APPROXIMATION*


            ETCS - Enhanced Tropical Cyclone Scale

SCALE #| CENT PRESS (MB) |  WIND SPD  |  SURGE  |    DAMAGE    | SS EQUIV.
-------|-----------------|------------|---------|--------------|-----------
    1  |  1008 - 1010    |  15 -  39  |    <  1 |    None      |  Under 1
    2  |  1004 - 1007    |  40 -  59  |  1 -  2 | Insignificant|  Under 1
    3  |   998 - 1003    |  60 -  74  |  2 -  3 |    Minimal   |  Near 1
    4  |   990 -  997    |  75 -  84  |  3 -  4 |    Minor     |  Middle 1
    5  |   980 -  989    |  85 -  94  |  4 -  5 |    Light     |  High 1
    6  |   965 -  979    |  95 - 109  |  6 -  8 |    Moderate  |  Cat. 2
    7  |   945 -  964    | 110 - 129  |  9 - 12 |    Extensive |  Cat. 3
    8  |   920 -  944    | 130 - 154  | 13 - 18 |    Extreme   |  Cat. 4
    9  |   890 -  919    | 155 - 184  | 19 - 25 | Devestating  |  Cat. 5
   10  |   855 -  889    | 185 - 219  | 26 - 35 | Catastrophic |  High 5